Bile is one of the most abundant body fluid and metabolic components of bile are highly correlated with several gallbladder diseases. Gallbladder diseases (gallstones, gallbladder polys, cholecystitis and cancer) can usually be diagnosed by a physical exam, blood test, abdominal X-ray, and ultrasonography. Among them, ultrasonography is the most common diagnostic method since it reveals the existence of gallstones, thickened gallbladder walls, or other problems in gallbladder. However, because of its low spatial resolutions, it is hard pressed to precisely distinguish between gallstones and gallbladder polyps from the surrounding normal tissue by ultrasonography.
Main purpose of this work is to identify several gallbladder diseases, especially gallstones and gallbladder polyps. We have performed detailed discrimination analysis (PCA analysis) and metabolic profiling of bile by using 1D and 2D 1H NMR spectroscopy. From these investigations, we found specific biomarkers (cholic acid and its derivatives) playing a significant role in discriminating gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and others. In conclusion, metabolic exploration based on 1H NMR spectroscopy provides a suitable guideline in differentiating gallbladder diseases.