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Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (BKCS)

ISSN 0253-2964(Print)
ISSN 1229-5949(Online)
Volume 32, Number 1
BKCSDE 32(1)
January 20, 2011 

Heterogeneous SnCl2/SiO2 versus Homogeneous SnCl2 acid catalysis in the benzo[N,N]-heterocyclic condensation
Hossein Reza Darabi*, Kioumars Aghapoor, Farshid Mohsenzadeh, Mohammad Reza Jalali, Shiva Talebian, Leila Ebadi Nia, Ehsan Khatamifar, Ali Aghaee
SnCl2/SiO2, Heterogeneous Lewis acid catalyst, Sustainability, Benzo[N,N]-heterocyclic condensation
The scope of homogeneous Lewis acid-catalyzed benzo[N,N]-heterocyclic condensation was expanded to include the use of various metal salts not reported in the literature and SnCl2·2H2O was finally selected. Among various solid supports activated with SnCl2, heterogeneous SnCl2/SiO2 proved to be the most effective and significantly higher conversions were achieved compared to SnCl2·2H2O itself. The results of TG-DTA and BET indicated that dispersed SnCl2 coordinates with surface hydroxyl groups of silica leading to formation of stable Lewis acid sites. Low catalyst loading, operational simplicity, practicability and applicability to various substrates render this eco-friendly approach as an interesting alternative to previously applied procedures.
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