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Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (BKCS)

ISSN 0253-2964(Print)
ISSN 1229-5949(Online)
Volume 28, Number 12
BKCSDE 28(12)
December 20, 2007 

Tertiary Structure of Ginsenoside Re Studied by NMR Spectroscopy
Dong Il Kang, Ki-Woong Jung, Seoungkeum Kim, Sung-Ah Lee, Gil-Ja Jhon, Yangmee Kim*
Ginsenoside Re, Ginseng, Tertiary structure, NMR spectroscopy
Ginseng has long been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries including Korea and China. In recent years, it has been reported that the biological activities of ginseng are due to its active components, ginsenosides. Ginsenosides are represented by triterpenes of the dammarane type. Ginsenoside Re consists of two glucose rings, one rhamnose ring, and the triterpene ring. In the present study ginsenoside Re has been isolated from the Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the tertiary structure has been determined using NMR spectroscopy. Flexibilities around each linkages described by seven torsion angles were considered. The structures of ginsenoside Re obtained by NMR spectroscopy show the rigidity around the glucopyranosyl ring II and alkene side chain. The dihedral angles of φ5, φ6, φ7 are about 150o, 50o and 45o, respectively. In addition, flexibility exists around rhamnopyranosyl and glucopyronosyl moiety. The linkage around the rhamnopyranosyl and glucopyranosyl ring I, are divided into three groups. This flexibility seems to play important role in regulation of the hydrophobic surface exposed to the solvent. Because of the growing need for the structural determination of ginsenoside, this result can help to understand their well-accepted pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re.
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