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Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (BKCS)

ISSN 0253-2964(Print)
ISSN 1229-5949(Online)
Volume 24, Number 12
BKCSDE 24(12)
December 20, 2003 

An Active Site Arginine Residue in Tobacco Acetolactate Synthase
Sung-Ho Kim, En-Joung Park, Sung-Sook Yoon, Jung-Do Choi*
Acetolatate synthase, Herbicide, Arginine, Chemical modification, Site-directed mutagenesis
Acetolatate synthase(ALS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of valine, leucine, isoleucine in plants and microorganisms. ALS is the target of several classes of herbicides, including the sulfonylureas, the imidazolinones, and the triazolopyrimidines. To elucidate the roles of arginine residues in tobacco ALS, chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis were performed. Recombinant tobacco ALS was expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The ALS was inactivated by arginine specific reagents, phenylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione. The rate of inactivation was a function of the concentration of modifier. The inactivation by butanedione was enhanced by borate, and the inactivation was reversible on removal of excess butanedione and borate. The substrate pyruvate and competitive inhibitors fluoropyruvate and phenylpyruvate protected the enzyme against inactivation by both modifiers. The mutation of well-conserved Arg198 of the ALS by Gln abolished the enzymatic activity as well as the binding affinity for cofactor FAD. However, the mutation of R198K did not affect significantly the binding of FAD to the enzyme. Taken together, the results imply that Arg198 is essential for the catalytic activity of the ALS and involved in the binding of FAD, and that the positive charge of the Arg is crucial for the interaction with negatively charged FAD.
1799 - 1804
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